New JRF report – Life on a low income in the UK today

JRF Minimum Income Standard

A new report by Loughborough University for JRF Falling short: the experiences of families living below the Minimum Income Standard looks at the lived experiences of 30 families who are all living below the Minimum Income Standard (MIS).

Making ends meet when you have very little is extremely hard work. More than one in three families in the UK today – over two million families – have an inadequate income.

Some families are managing to get by, but can’t imagine being able to stretch to a day trip or low cost family holiday. Others struggle to afford material necessities like food and school uniforms.

New hazards and uncertainties, such as zero-hours contracts, payday loans, less stable housing situations and benefit changes have made life precarious, risking more severe forms of deprivation for some. Even when working, many families are struggling to meet their needs and keep up with social expectations. A crucial factor is stability: those with unstable jobs, insecure housing or fluctuating benefits are far more vulnerable than those on a more even keel. Being able to fall back on the support of extended family is also critical, with grandparents helping to look after young children while parents work and sometimes paying for things like holidays or children’s activities, or helping out financially in a crisis.

The research, which is part of JRF’s strategy to solve poverty, found that the experience of families is varied. Summarising the experiences of low income among participants in the study, in terms of how well they are coping and whether things are improving or getting worse, they can be divided into four broad groups:

  • getting on
  • getting by
  • getting stuck
  • getting harder

The causes and effects of a low income cannot be solved overnight. Above all, parents want to be able to provide their children with a feeling of ‘normality’ – a basic standard of living that they can rely on. Yet four out of five low-paid workers remain stuck in low pay after 10 years. The problems faced by low income families don’t disappear when they enter work: tax credits are essential in making ends meet for working families.

This research shows how policies which help address low family income need to aim for greater stability in four key areas. Families need stable jobs, with steady earnings that they can rely on. Where earnings remain low and the state helps out, or where people can’t work, they need benefits that they can guarantee will not be reduced or taken away. In meeting their housing needs, they require the security that has been provided by social housing and which at present is often lacking in the private rented sector. Finally, they need reliable and affordable childcare, so that if help from extended family is not available parents are not preventing for working. Support in these four areas would go a long way to providing the stability that these two million families below the Minimum Income Standard crave – so they can get on, rather than simply get by, in modern Britain.

JRF’s strategy to solve UK poverty is being launched in September. It recommends a plan that boosts people’s incomes by making work pay, and making housing and childcare more affordable. A plan that ensures the education system gives all children the best start in life and ensures they have the skills they need to get well-paid jobs with opportunities to progress. A plan that promotes long-term economic growth that benefits everyone. A plan that supports families to stay together and communities to help themselves. By working together with vision and commitment we can take start to create a prosperous society built on decent living standards and opportunities for everyone to fulfil their potential. You can follow progress at




Birmingham Child Poverty Commission Report Launched


Birmingham should be a city where every child has the opportunity to fulfil their potential and not let poverty be a barrier to success – that is the ambition of the Birmingham Child Poverty Commission’s report launched on 30 June 2016.

The report provides a series of recommendations aimed at reducing child poverty in Birmingham and focusing upon the drivers of poverty including the economy, unemployment, low wages, education and health. The report also explores the circumstances that create poverty and the impact it can have on families.

The independent Commission established by Birmingham City Council and chaired by Matthew Reed, Chief Executive of national charity The Children’s Society, included experts from the public, private and voluntary sectors, including the University of Birmingham and Barnardo’s who all have a part to play in preventing children growing up in poverty. The Commission set out to look at ways to tackle child poverty in Birmingham and ensure all children have access to opportunities that will help improve their life chances.

According to official figures, more than 100,000 children in Birmingham (37%) live in poverty after housing costs have been taken into account. This is the third highest rate in the country.

The Commission gathered views from across the city including people who work with children and families, health experts, business representatives and faith groups but most crucially spent most of their time listening to the real-life experiences of more than 200 parents and more than 600 children and young people from low-income families.

Representatives from the Commission listened to and recorded the views of those who were willing to share their experiences and sought to understand poverty from their perspective, bringing to life the stories of children and families behind the hard statistics.

A survey of 200 Birmingham parents, carried out for the report, found:

  • Parents living in poverty in the city are more pessimistic about their children’s future, with over half believing their children will have a worse life than their own. By contrast only 30% of wealthier parents feel this way
  • Children in poverty are four times more likely to miss out on a meal during school hours than their classmates who are not in poverty
  • Children living in families in poverty are almost twice as likely to miss out on school trips during term time.

The report makes 24 recommendations which the Commission will be asking the City Council and partner organisations to adopt and commit to delivering. The recommendations, which will go to a meeting of the full Council on 12 July 2016 for endorsement, are focussed around raising aspirations, breaking the cycle of poverty, sharing responsibility and mitigating the impact of existing poverty. The recommendations include:

  • By July 2017, all schools should adapt their uniform policy to ensure affordability
  • By January 2019, Birmingham City Council should work with local businesses to make the city the first ‘Living Wage City’ where all employers pay the minimum amount
  • By January 2018, there should be a planning restriction in place preventing new fast food outlets within 250 metres of schools
  • By April 2017, Birmingham City Council should exempt care leavers from paying Council Tax up to and including the age of 25
  • By April 2017, Birmingham City Council should explore subsidised transport for young people within city localities
  • By September 2017, a mentoring scheme should be set up so local businesses can help raise aspirations and provide advice and support for 15 and 16-year-olds living in low-income families.

Matthew Reed, Chairman of the Birmingham Child Poverty Commission and Chief Executive of The Children’s Society, said:

“Any child living in poverty is one too many, but the scale of child poverty in Birmingham, with nearly four in ten children living in poverty, is truly shocking. Our research has shown that as well as affecting children’s immediate well-being and happiness, growing up in poverty can also damage their long-term aspirations and life chances.

“Commissioners have listened carefully to children and families, as well as community groups, schools, employers and people involved in areas like health and housing which are linked to poverty.

“These conversations have helped us to develop a series of recommendations which, although ambitious, we believe are achievable with the support of the city council and other people and organisations, including across the public, private and voluntary sectors.

“While there is no silver bullet which will end a complex deep-rooted issue like child poverty overnight, we believe these proposals have the potential to make a real difference to the lives of children, young people and families in the city. It is in everyone’s interest in Birmingham that we do all we can end child poverty across the city.”

Councillor John Clancy, Leader of the Council said: “Every child matters in Birmingham and no child growing up in this city should have their childhood or future life chances scarred by living in poverty.

“Tackling child poverty is one of the key priorities as we work to create a fairer city and the Child Poverty Commission was set up to remove some of the barriers which lead to poverty and inequality.

“This is a young, diverse city and our children deserve the best possible start in life. We’ve made our ambitions and priorities clear in setting up this Commission and we will now work with partners to increase prosperity and aspiration for all young people in Birmingham.”

The report is available here 47.51_ChildPovertyCommission_Report_WEB version FINAL

‘Overlooked’ and ‘Left behind’ young people can lead to poverty

House of LordsToday saw the announcement of a report compiled by the House of Lords Social Mobility Committee: Overlooked and left behind: improving the transition from school to work for the majority of young people

From the outset the report recognises that the transition from school into work is a vital point in the lives of young people. And that making a successful transition through a high quality and valued pathway can mean a successful career or the alternative of becoming trapped in poor quality and under-valued alternatives can lead to a lifetime of poverty.

Emphasis is also given to the fact that not much attention has been given to the young people between two groups; those who progress in Further Education or at the other end of the scale, not in education, employment or training (NEET).

The ‘forgotten’ or ‘overlooked’ group by policy-makers is the largest group of young people. In 2013/14, England’s total population of 16 and 17 year-olds was 1,285,800, only 47 per cent of young people (601,500 people) aged 16 and 17 started A-Levels, whereas 53 per cent (684,300) did not do so.

The report calls for Government to make eight recommendations to support the development of a coherent and navigable transition system for those aged 14–24.

The recommendations request a cohesive system: a core curriculum for those aged 14–19, with tailor made academic or vocational elements, a gold standard in careers advice, and careers education in schools that empowers young people to make good decisions about their future. Underpinning this system, the committee request that reliable and publicly available data is needed that is properly funded, owned by a single Minister, and monitored for success.

It also recognises that there is a growing gap in income between the richest and the poorest and that this gap makes it all the more difficult to access top high earning jobs which command high wages. In addition to negative impacts on individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds, OECD analysis suggests that income inequality has a negative and statistically significant impact on medium-term growth

Labour market changes are also called for; it understands that the types of jobs available are very important to social mobility. That with changes to the economy that provide more and better jobs with better pay and more security can have a positive impact.

Many of the ‘overlooked’ group from the middle cohort are often caught in part-time, low-paid, low-skilled and temporary jobs. After leaving school or college they take on are jobs such as kitchen and catering assistants and serving staff in bars and restaurants, as well as roles in sales and customer service. Ways to progress from these roles is often not clear or achievable, meaning that the young people are disadvantaged from those with degrees.

Further in the report it adds, “Children who are exposed to certain factors in their background are more likely to have poor outcomes later in life. Some of these problems of access are exacerbated by ‘opportunity hoarding.’ Parents naturally want their children to have the best chances of a successful life.”

The committee conducted a series of engagement activities gathering evidence including focus groups and surveys.  Some of the young people they heard from told them how their backgrounds had affected them: “When I left School I wasn’t able to complete college courses as there was no fixed home address.”

Ibid, another survey participant was quoted “Due to staying at home to help my mum one occasion, I was stripped of my bursary and so unable to travel to college. It was the only college to offer the course I was on. I wasn’t allowed to sit the end of unit assessments and as such, unable to progress to the next level course. I am now in the situation where I cannot get … funding due to studying a different course. As my options of education have now run out I have been forced to apply for universal credit.

I have been doing unpaid work experience for the past three and a half weeks while waiting the 35 days before I receive any payment. Growing up in a poor family anyway, it has been very difficult to find the means to travel to and from the job centre, so I already owe a lot of money to family members.”


Calls for a clearer policy framework and more effective delivery mechanism

(Recommendation 1)
A need for more coherence in the UK Government’s policy governing the transition of young people into the workplace. The policy should set out a framework for school to work transitions from age 14 to age 19 and over. It should explicitly address the middle route to work, and the decision-making that takes place from 14 onwards, and set the standard for sharing best practice across the UK.

(Recommendation 2)
The transition stage should be considered to be from age 14 to age 19. Learning during this stage should include a core curriculum with tailor-made academic and/or vocational courses. It should aim to get as many people who can, up to a Level 3 qualification. There are three important strands to the framework:

(a) Clearer routes to good-quality work for those in the middle, brought about by local collaboration, to enable .

  • vocational routes to work which are robust and high quality, do not close down future opportunities, and lead to worthwhile destinations. The work of the Sainsbury led review should contribute to this.
  • meaningful experiences of work, organised between the student, the school and a local employer, including work placements and work-based training. Any work experiences undertaken must have a clear aim and objective to prepare young people for work and life.

(b) A new gold standard in independent careers advice and guidance, supported by a robust evidence base and drawing on existing expertise, which moves responsibility away from schools and colleges (which would require legislative change) in order to ensure that students are given independent advice about the different routes and qualifications available, to include:

  • independent, face-to-face, careers advice, which provides good quality, informed advice on more than just academic routes, so that individuals are able to make decisions based on sound knowledge of what is available.
  • a single access point for all information on vocational options, including the labour market returns on qualifications.

(c) Improved careers education in schools, to empower young people to make good choices for themselves to include;

  • information on labour market returns, which would include information about the financial prospects of different options, to inform and motivate young people.
  • data on local labour markets to inform the teaching of Life Skills, skills for life, and careers education.

(Recommendation 3)
This transition framework should be owned by, and be the responsibility of, a Cabinet-level minister, who will assume ultimate responsibility for the transition from school to work for young people.

(Recommendation 4)
Transitions from school to work should be supported by publicly available data, compiled by the relevant Government departments. This data should be made available to researchers so that they have access to earnings data, study patterns, and different demographic patterns, brought about by legislative change if necessary.

(Recommendation 5)
Recommend that the responsible Cabinet Minister should report on progress annually to Parliament.

(Recommendation 6)
Increasingly local labour markets and skills needs are being seen as a devolved responsibility, whether it is to conurbations such as London, Manchester or Leeds, or to rural areas such as Somerset or Lincolnshire. However, because administrative structures are so much in flux, there is often no focal point for action. The most valuable role the Government can take is to act as a facilitator, coordinating the efforts of its existing structures, and brokering collaboration between existing local bodies such as further education colleges, schools, local authorities, local enterprise partnerships and employers.

(Recommendation 7)
The Government should keep under constant review the degree of success of transitions into work for those in the middle. The Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission should play a strong part in monitoring these transitions.

(Recommendation 8)
That the Government should commission a cost benefit analysis of increasing funding for careers education in school and independent careers guidance external to the school in the context of 110 IMPROVING THE TRANSITION FROM SCHOOL TO WORK social mobility. A report providing this analysis should be made to Parliament before the end of its 2016–17 session.

No Recourse to Public Funding – Zambrano Families

Homeless in underpass_David Holt

Recently a focused discussion was held in Birmingham on the issues of families with No Recourse to Public Funding (NRPF) in particular Zambrano* families.

Keen to share the experience of these families accessing support in Birmingham and the Black Country, the jointly organised event by Workers’ Educational Association (WEA) and Asylum Support and Immigration Resource Team ASIRT brought together a number of public and third sector agencies to look how they can work together to improve policy and practice.

Chaired by Jess Phillips MP, the round-table discussion’s purpose was to:

  • understand the current approach to policy and procedures of Birmingham and Black Country local authorities of their statutory duty to provide support for the child of Zambrano carers who are UK citizens
  • raise awareness of the treatment of Zambrano carers and their children who have no recourse to public funds
  • to share better practice and identify where improvements can be made in the support and treatment of these families

Presentations were also given by:

Delegates also heard personal accounts via podcast: and video: to highlight the difficulties that some families have had, including two case studies of Hear Our Voice Case Study 1-1 and Hear Our Voice Case Study 2-1.

After contributing to the discussions many of the delegates indicated that they would continue to show support and make changes in the following ways:

Leeds University and Birmingham Community Law Centre were keen to establish a small working group to look at how data on families with NRPF can be accessed or provided to give a more accurate picture.

Greater Birmingham Advice Service indicated an interest in undertaking a mapping exercise to identify the referral, assessment and support pathway for Zambrano families in Birmingham with a similar interest by Birmingham Child Poverty Commission in identifying a collaborative pathway to support families with NRPF.

There was also an interest by several participants in looking at how an equalities and human rights impact assessment might be used to challenge the amendment in the Immigration Bill that impacts adversely on the rights of Zambrano carers.

In addition, British Association of Social Workers were interested in exploring how CPD can be used to improve understanding and knowledge of social workers in the rights and entitlements of Zambrano families.


Guardian headline

Here is an example of how only last week, The Guardian shared a story of Maria in an article Raped, pregnant, homeless: the grim reality of life as an asylum seeker

Having faced persecution in her homeland, Maria came to the UK looking for a new safer future. Only find that the reality is being trapped in a complex legal system that wants her to leave the UK, and during her failed asylum claims she sleeps rough in public places as she doesn’t have access to basic accommodation or funds, Section 4 (1).

However, one ill-fortuned night in 2015, the offer of shelter leads to her being drugged, raped and becoming pregnant.  With limited support from friends and charities, and at 34 weeks pregnant Maria still has no accommodation even after continued efforts to providing additional evidence to the Home Office, she is still sleeping on the streets waiting for her baby to arrive.

The awful part of this is that Maria is not alone in her ongoing battle with the Home Office which often takes years for a decision, but she has the struggle of with living with the life changing effects of being raped too.

So what happens now? The mother is not British citizen and the imminent arrival of a child with no clarity around its own legal status?

Do you have any thoughts or views you would like to share on this issue? Why not contact the Birmingham Child Poverty Commission by emailing:


*The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) ruling on the case of Zambrano (C-34/09) provided that a non-European Economic Area (EEA) national who had been living and working in Belgium without a work permit, had a right to reside and to work so that his Belgian national children were not forced to leave the European Union (EU) and prevented from exercising their rights as EU citizens. Source:

Is it child’s play: creating an anti-poverty childcare system?


Every parent wants the best start for their child and a recent study published by Joseph Rowntree Foundation (JRF), Creating an anti-poverty childcare system highlights how the current child care system doesn’t focus enough on providing high quality early learning for our children to protect them against the negative effects of poverty.

With a complex system currently looking more like a game of snakes and ladders, what you receive in one hand rapidly slides away in the other, but the losers in this game can be the children in the long term.

Kicking off with “2.3 million children in the UK are living below the Child Poverty Act 2010 relative poverty threshold, representing one-fifth of all children” the Executive Summary high lights how we need to change things.

The report calls for a childcare system which maximises on quality with well-qualified, experienced staff able to identify and respond to children’s needs; a good social mix of children; a proactive approach to supporting home learning; and strong links with early intervention services.

The system also needs to remove the barriers of affordability and access for parents on low incomes, allowing them the flexibility and opportunity to find work in good quality jobs and not just taking a lower paid job that fits with the standard childcare hours.

It is suggested that policy-makers should grasp the opportunity to translate the potential of this system into reality by responding to four key themes:

  • Providing high quality early education and effective early intervention
  • Supporting parents through accessible, flexible childcare
  • Childcare and Universal Credit
  • Childcare subsidy reform and supply-funded childcare

What ever government plans to do, it needs to move now to provide our children with the opportunities to fulfil their potential and create a better society, surely better statistics would be “2.3 million children out of poverty?”

To download the study click here: anti_pov_childcare_full_0 (1)

Do you or your organisation have a view on this study? Why not share your views with the commission?

Tweeter: @fairbrum



Difficulty speaking English increases chances of poverty

A previous study, Poverty across ethnic groups through recession and austerity was produced by Joseph Rowntree Foundation in 2015 looked at how ethnicity and poverty are linked. The research examined the impact of the recession which started in 2008 and subsequent austerity measures on different ethnic groups’ economic well-being.

The study:

  • compares economic well-being measures (household income, access to
  • goods and services for achieving a reasonable standard of living, poverty status) of different ethnic groups;
  • investigates for each ethnic group which components of income contributed to these changes;
  • considers whether changes in employment rates among men and women in these groups contributed to these changes;
  • compares persistent poverty across different ethnic groups and identifies factors associated with persistent poverty.

For full details of the study go to: Poverty across ethnic groups through recession and austerity

Do you have personal experience or work with people who are directly impacted by languages barriers that make it difficult to move out of poverty? If so, why not share them with the commission and tell us what would help to improve the situation for you or them?



Study finds quality flexible working could help with child poverty

Publication2Joseph Rowntree Foundation have recently published findings of a study investigating the number of ‘quality’ flexible job vacancies in the UK, which shows how living standards could improve if there were more of these jobs.

New part-time or flexible job vacancies are necessary to enable workless people in low-income households to enter the jobs market on a flexible basis, and for people in low-paid part-time work to progress to new jobs with better pay while retaining their flexibility.

The key findings shown from a summary four page document shows that:

  • Parents, older people and disabled people (the three groups under study) need to earn at least £10.63 an hour to meet minimum income standards. This rate establishes the pay threshold for a ‘quality’ job and equates to a full-time equivalent salary of £19,500 a year.
  • 1.9 million people could benefit from getting a quality flexible job and hold the necessary qualification levels to attain one. Of these, over 1.5 million people are currently in part-time work below the pay rate for a quality job. A further 154,000 people are workless.
  • There are 202,300 well-qualified people in the groups who are living in poverty.
  • Only 6.2 per cent of quality job vacancies are advertised with options to work flexibly. This compares poorly with the high demand for flexible work (47 per cent of the workforce want to work flexibly).
  • There are 8.1 people in poverty for each quality flexible vacancy, of whom 7.4 people are workless. For quality full-time jobs, the demand is only 0.9 workless people per vacancy.
  • An eight-fold increase in the number of flexible job vacancies would be needed, for supply versus demand to match that for quality full-time jobs.

Recommendations for the UK Government

The summary focuses on four main areas of focus, each with recommended approaches.

  1. Help the 202,300 parents, older people and disabled people who are in poverty and could benefit from a quality flexible job
  2. Improve the wider social mobility of the 1.9 million people who are not achieving their full earning potential and could benefit from a quality flexible job
  3. Improve knowledge about flexible working
  4. And Government can also demonstrate leadership as an employer in its own right.

Download Joseph Rowntree Foundation reports:

Summary copy – timewise-flexible-hiring-summary

Full copy – timewise-flexible-hiring-full (1)

Anyone who wants to share their views, ideas and stories with the commission can contact:

People are also encouraged to contact and follow the commission on Twitter using its@FairBrum handle and the hashtag #brumchildpoverty.

The commission aims to publish its report, including recommendations to tackle poverty in Birmingham, early next year.

Jobcentre Plus to be trialled in Birmingham schools

Headlined by Children and Young People Now government has announced that Birmingham will be trialling Jobcentre Plus advisers in schools by the end of the month, before extending its plans to nine other pathfinder areas.

This initiative is aimed at supporting young people at risk of becoming NEET (not in employment, education or training), or who are otherwise disadvantaged in the labour market.

In a letter written by Conservative peer Baroness Evans reveals that the initiative, which she said will aim to deliver “independent, high-quality and impartial careers advice”, is not intended to be universally available to all students.

Instead it will be focused on helping young people deemed to be at risk of dropping out of education and not getting a job.

“The support will help facilitate an effective transition from schools to work, training or further study and will focus on three key areas: advising on routes into traineeships and apprenticeships; highlighting the importance of work experience using Jobcentre Plus’s extensive network of employers; and providing realistic advice on the local labour market.”

So, how will this plan affect the young people of our city and reduce the risk of them falling into poverty?


Details in the Child Poverty Needs Assessment for Birmingham FINAL – Sept 2015 produced for Birmingham Child Poverty Commission show that Long-term worklessness and Low earnings are one of the key drivers affecting young people in Birmingham.

The needs assessment summarises findings of a 2014 government report, “An evidence review of the drivers of child poverty for families in poverty now and for poor children growing up to be poor adults” including that of Educational Attainment.

“A child’s educational achievement will affect their later labour market prospects and so the risk of future poverty. A pupil’s family background has an important influence on their educational attainment, but the quality of school a child attends also makes a significant difference to their educational attainment, particularly for educationally disadvantaged children. There is robust evidence that high quality formal pre-school education can help to narrow the attainment gaps between children from different family backgrounds that emerge in children’s first years.”

Further breakdown can be found in the Child Poverty Needs Assessment 2015 by Key Stage, gender, ethnicity and geography. Can this announcement make difference to our young people?

Only time will tell before we see a difference, but what kind of difference it could make to those who receive the support and those that don’t.

Share your thoughts and views on this announcement.

Progress on the Living Wage in Birmingham


The campaign for a Living Wage for workers across the country has been ongoing now for many years. The living wage is increasingly seen as one of the solutions for in-work poverty.  It is based on the amount an individual needs to earn to cover the basic costs of living – estimated to be significantly above current levels for the minimum wage.  Over the past few years the idea has  gained a great deal of traction from across the political spectrum, having been promoted nationally by the Living Wage Foundation.  The current living wage is estimated to be £7.85 an hour for people outside of London, and £9.15 for those living in London.  (For more information on the calculation click here).

The idea of Living Wage has returned to the headlines recently with the Chancellor’s announcement in the recent budget that he would be introducing a National Living Wage of £7.20 and hour for those over 25 from next April.  This will rise to £9.00 by 2020.  While announcement has received mixed reviews from employers, and has gained some cautious welcomes by charitable organisations, although there is some concern that the figures are just higher minimum wages rather than actually at the level of a living wage.

In Birmingham, the City Council has been paying the nationally recognised living wage for sometime now, having first adopted Living Wage for Council employees back in 2012, with the City Council receiving a nomination for the Living Wage Champion Awards 2014.

But what does the living wage look like across the rest of the city?

Earlier this year and before the Chancellor’s announcement,  the Centre for Research in Social Policy  – the body who calculate the living wage outside of London – published a report looking into the Living Wage in Birmingham.  This report –Making ends meet in Birmingham: assessing the impact of the living wage and welfare reform –  has some interesting findings, including:

  • Household incomes reached a peak in 2009 and earnings have not returned to this level yet.
  • Birmingham actually has a smaller proportion of workers below the living wage than nationally
  • Since the adoption of the living wage by Birmingham City Council, the proportion of public sector workers below this level has fallen dramatically to only 2% of workers, compared to 8% nationally.
  • There is a stark contrast between public and private sector workers within the city: 27 %of private sector workers were paid less than the living wage in 2013 compared to 2 % in the public sector.
  • The city has witnessed significant increases in the proportion of workers who are self-employed since 2009: 13% of all those aged 16-64 working in Birmingham in early 2014 were self-employed.

The full report contains more interesting findings – which the Child Poverty Commission will use to in their work.  But what is clear is that the introduction of the living wage has clearly done much to reduce low pay in the public sector, but low pay within the private sector remains a challenge for Birmingham.

Full report here