New JRF report – Life on a low income in the UK today

JRF Minimum Income Standard

A new report by Loughborough University for JRF Falling short: the experiences of families living below the Minimum Income Standard looks at the lived experiences of 30 families who are all living below the Minimum Income Standard (MIS).

Making ends meet when you have very little is extremely hard work. More than one in three families in the UK today – over two million families – have an inadequate income.

Some families are managing to get by, but can’t imagine being able to stretch to a day trip or low cost family holiday. Others struggle to afford material necessities like food and school uniforms.

New hazards and uncertainties, such as zero-hours contracts, payday loans, less stable housing situations and benefit changes have made life precarious, risking more severe forms of deprivation for some. Even when working, many families are struggling to meet their needs and keep up with social expectations. A crucial factor is stability: those with unstable jobs, insecure housing or fluctuating benefits are far more vulnerable than those on a more even keel. Being able to fall back on the support of extended family is also critical, with grandparents helping to look after young children while parents work and sometimes paying for things like holidays or children’s activities, or helping out financially in a crisis.

The research, which is part of JRF’s strategy to solve poverty, found that the experience of families is varied. Summarising the experiences of low income among participants in the study, in terms of how well they are coping and whether things are improving or getting worse, they can be divided into four broad groups:

  • getting on
  • getting by
  • getting stuck
  • getting harder

The causes and effects of a low income cannot be solved overnight. Above all, parents want to be able to provide their children with a feeling of ‘normality’ – a basic standard of living that they can rely on. Yet four out of five low-paid workers remain stuck in low pay after 10 years. The problems faced by low income families don’t disappear when they enter work: tax credits are essential in making ends meet for working families.

This research shows how policies which help address low family income need to aim for greater stability in four key areas. Families need stable jobs, with steady earnings that they can rely on. Where earnings remain low and the state helps out, or where people can’t work, they need benefits that they can guarantee will not be reduced or taken away. In meeting their housing needs, they require the security that has been provided by social housing and which at present is often lacking in the private rented sector. Finally, they need reliable and affordable childcare, so that if help from extended family is not available parents are not preventing for working. Support in these four areas would go a long way to providing the stability that these two million families below the Minimum Income Standard crave – so they can get on, rather than simply get by, in modern Britain.

JRF’s strategy to solve UK poverty is being launched in September. It recommends a plan that boosts people’s incomes by making work pay, and making housing and childcare more affordable. A plan that ensures the education system gives all children the best start in life and ensures they have the skills they need to get well-paid jobs with opportunities to progress. A plan that promotes long-term economic growth that benefits everyone. A plan that supports families to stay together and communities to help themselves. By working together with vision and commitment we can take start to create a prosperous society built on decent living standards and opportunities for everyone to fulfil their potential. You can follow progress at




JRF call for government to boost funds to support 12 poorest regions post Brexit

Birmingham is in the top twelve regions that will need extra financial support from government says Joseph Rowntree Foundation (JFR).

Exert source:
JRF UK Government needs to plan to boost poorest regions following Brexit 

Following analysis of European Structural and Investment Fund (ESIF). It shows the funding each Local Enterprise Partnership (LEP) area is allocated to receive.

The cash is crucial to ensure regions do not fall further behind. England receives almost £5.6 billion to share between its 39 LEPs, Wales receives £1.9 billion, Scotland £720 million and Northern Ireland £414 million. The money is allocated to 2020.

The official Leave campaign said it would honour existing EU grants until 2020, including funds for regional development. European funding plays an important part in mitigating the effects of poverty in some of the poorest areas of the country – ones that also voted in favour of leaving the EU.

JRF says it is vital that whatever happens in the negotiations, the UK holds onto the allocated cash and that it is not clawed back following Brexit. The analysis shows that after 2020, it is crucial the UK government has a plan in place to help regions create prosperous local economies and ensure growth is shared across the country.

Full breakdown for all regions

Funding by region
Region Population Funding (Euros) Funding (£ 2014 Prices) Funding Per Head (2014 Prices)
England 54,786,300 6,937,200,000 5,594,796,302 £102.12
Wales 3,099,100 2,412,500,000 1,945,661,950 £627.82
Scotland 5,373,000 894,600,000 721,487,743 £134.28
Northern Ireland 1,851,600 513,400,000 414,052,993 £223.62
LEP Area Population Funding (Euros) Funding (£ 2014 Prices) Funding Per Head (2014 Prices)
Black Country 1,166,400 176,600,000 142,426,487 £122.11
Buckinghamshire Thames Valley 528,400 13,800,000 11,129,590 £21.06
Cheshire and Warrington 917,000 141,600,000 114,119,267 £124.54
Coast to Capital 1,996,400 67,000,000 54,034,964 £27.07
Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly 551,700 590,400,000 476,152,877 £863.06
Coventry and Warwickshire 899,400 135,500,000 109,279,666 £121.50
Cumbria 498,000 91,000,000 73,390,772 £91.04
Derby, Derbyshire, Nottingham and Nottinghamshire 2,161,400 244,000,000 196,784,048 £49.61
Dorset 765,700 47,100,000 37,985,773 £49.61
Enterprise M3 1,675,200 45,500,000 36,695,386 £21.91
Gloucestershire 617,200 38,100,000 30,727,345 £49.79
Greater Birmingham and Solihull 1,996,200 254,800,000 205,494,162 £102.94
Greater Cambridge & Greater Peterborough 1,423,300 75,200,000 60,648,198 £42.61
Greater Lincolnshire 1,066,100 133,000,000 107,263,436 £100.61
Greater Manchester 2,756,200 413,800,000 333,726,390 £121.08
Heart of the South West 1,714,600 117,800,000 95,004,758 £55.41
Hertfordshire 1,166,300 69,200,000 55,809,246 £47.85
Humber 925,100 102,000,000 82,262,184 £88.92
Lancashire 1,478,100 265,200,000 213,881,678 £144.70
Leeds City Region 3,026,700 389,500,000 314,128,634 £103.79
Leicestershire 1,017,900 125,700,000 101,376,044 £99.59
Liverpool 1,524,600 220,900,000 178,154,083 £116.85
London 8,673,700 745,400,000 601,159,137 £69.31
New Anglia 1,626,900 94,100,000 75,890,897 £46.65
North Eastern 1,957,200 537,400,000 433,408,801 £221.44
Northamptonshire 723,000 54,800,000 44,195,762 £61.13
Oxfordshire LEP 677,800 19,300,000 15,565,296 £22.96
Sheffield City Region 1,842,200 207,200,000 167,105,142 £90.71
Solent 1,590,600 42,900,000 34,598,507 £21.75
South East 4,132,300 185,100,000 149,281,669 £36.13
South East Midlands 1,807,100 87,900,000 70,890,647 £39.23
Stoke-on-Trent and Staffordshire 1,114,200 160,900,000 129,764,563 £116.46
Swindon and Wiltshire 703,300 43,400,000 35,001,753 £49.77
Tees Valley 667,500 201,700,000 162,669,436 £243.70
Thames Valley Berkshire 890,600 28,500,000 22,985,022 £25.81
The Marches 670,600 113,300,000 91,375,544 £136.26
West of England 1,118,800 68,300,000 55,083,404 £49.23
Worcestershire 578,600 67,800,00 54,680,158 £94.50
York and North Yorkshire 1,145,800 91,700,000 73,955,316 £64.54

Source: JRF

No Recourse to Public Funding – Zambrano Families

Homeless in underpass_David Holt

Recently a focused discussion was held in Birmingham on the issues of families with No Recourse to Public Funding (NRPF) in particular Zambrano* families.

Keen to share the experience of these families accessing support in Birmingham and the Black Country, the jointly organised event by Workers’ Educational Association (WEA) and Asylum Support and Immigration Resource Team ASIRT brought together a number of public and third sector agencies to look how they can work together to improve policy and practice.

Chaired by Jess Phillips MP, the round-table discussion’s purpose was to:

  • understand the current approach to policy and procedures of Birmingham and Black Country local authorities of their statutory duty to provide support for the child of Zambrano carers who are UK citizens
  • raise awareness of the treatment of Zambrano carers and their children who have no recourse to public funds
  • to share better practice and identify where improvements can be made in the support and treatment of these families

Presentations were also given by:

Delegates also heard personal accounts via podcast: and video: to highlight the difficulties that some families have had, including two case studies of Hear Our Voice Case Study 1-1 and Hear Our Voice Case Study 2-1.

After contributing to the discussions many of the delegates indicated that they would continue to show support and make changes in the following ways:

Leeds University and Birmingham Community Law Centre were keen to establish a small working group to look at how data on families with NRPF can be accessed or provided to give a more accurate picture.

Greater Birmingham Advice Service indicated an interest in undertaking a mapping exercise to identify the referral, assessment and support pathway for Zambrano families in Birmingham with a similar interest by Birmingham Child Poverty Commission in identifying a collaborative pathway to support families with NRPF.

There was also an interest by several participants in looking at how an equalities and human rights impact assessment might be used to challenge the amendment in the Immigration Bill that impacts adversely on the rights of Zambrano carers.

In addition, British Association of Social Workers were interested in exploring how CPD can be used to improve understanding and knowledge of social workers in the rights and entitlements of Zambrano families.


Guardian headline

Here is an example of how only last week, The Guardian shared a story of Maria in an article Raped, pregnant, homeless: the grim reality of life as an asylum seeker

Having faced persecution in her homeland, Maria came to the UK looking for a new safer future. Only find that the reality is being trapped in a complex legal system that wants her to leave the UK, and during her failed asylum claims she sleeps rough in public places as she doesn’t have access to basic accommodation or funds, Section 4 (1).

However, one ill-fortuned night in 2015, the offer of shelter leads to her being drugged, raped and becoming pregnant.  With limited support from friends and charities, and at 34 weeks pregnant Maria still has no accommodation even after continued efforts to providing additional evidence to the Home Office, she is still sleeping on the streets waiting for her baby to arrive.

The awful part of this is that Maria is not alone in her ongoing battle with the Home Office which often takes years for a decision, but she has the struggle of with living with the life changing effects of being raped too.

So what happens now? The mother is not British citizen and the imminent arrival of a child with no clarity around its own legal status?

Do you have any thoughts or views you would like to share on this issue? Why not contact the Birmingham Child Poverty Commission by emailing:


*The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) ruling on the case of Zambrano (C-34/09) provided that a non-European Economic Area (EEA) national who had been living and working in Belgium without a work permit, had a right to reside and to work so that his Belgian national children were not forced to leave the European Union (EU) and prevented from exercising their rights as EU citizens. Source:

How many low income families can afford their 5-A-day portions?

5 a day

It’s great to see a recent reminder of our 5-A-DAY portions for adults and children by Change4Life, but how many of the families on low incomes in Birmingham can realistically achieve this?

Whether the parents are working or receiving financial support, for many ensuring that their children receive a meal can be a challenge, let alone a balanced diet!

37% of Birmingham children were estimated to be living in poverty after housing costs in the Child Poverty Needs Assessment 2015 based on 2013 figures; which is 12% higher than the national average (25%).

Obviously several fact0rs need to improve at the same time to help families improve the quality of life for our young Birmingham citizens enabling them to have better life chances, such as:

Increase in income

  • Better rates of pay for employees through initiatives like the Living Wage,
  • Fairer equal pay for lone female parents who may be working part time;
  • And effective ways to reduce the impact of the Welfare Reform and Work bill 2015/16 on those receiving benefits.

Individual factors

  • The need to improve cooking skills and knowledge, plus understanding the nutriental benefits of fresh and varied foods.
  • There may even be a lack of storage due to not being able to afford a fridge or even living in temporary accommodation with limited facilities.

Accessibility and affordability

  • Families need to be able to access local affordable shops that have a range of good quality fresh food,
  • Improved transport links, such as affordable public services,
  • Also, parents are physically well enough to make the shopping trips themselves,
  • And food producers need to make sure that goods are at a fair price. Food Statistics Pocket 2015, on page 24 it states that all food groups rose during 2007  -2015 from between 22-42%!

Why not share your views on what else needs to change to give the young people a great healthy start in achieving their potential. Why not contact us : or Twitter @fairbrum



Better transport links and community design can help reduce child poverty

Bristol transport coverWe all know that where we live, affects how we live. Humans tend to be creatures of habit and looking for the easier way. So if we live in a built up area, wide open spaces can seem like a million miles away and we never venture from the concrete jungle, and for some people in the outskirts of a city they may never actually travel to the city centre.

So obviously how our towns and cities are designed impacts how we access schools, work and leisure. Therefore, there is a need to enable an individual to improve their life and that of their family with journeys to services that are not hard work, off putting or financially difficult to meet through high cost, time consuming public transport or heavy commutes.

In a collaborative approach “A-Good-Transport-Plan-for-Bristol-2016-PDF” has been launched with an aim to show how getting around Bristol could be cleaner, cheaper and more efficient over the next five to ten years.

Bristol transport objectives

The plan recognises that the current city structure and use doesn’t work for everyone and the document sets out nine objectives to help make the necessary changes to make the city more resilient, sustainable and accessible.

Birmingham, as a city can use Bristol’s transport plan to remind itself and its partners, that there is a need to maintain and retain its focus on transportation, community design and structures and its importance on improving the quality of life for our citizens.

These changes for example can mean that our young people have access to safe, clean open spaces near where they live, instead of unattractive concrete and rubbish littered play areas. And parents have access to good affordable regular public transport, instead of one bus that touches the outskirts of a housing estate every 30 minutes which doesn’t run on time.

There is no quick fix, as change on this scale has to take into account current established settings, other public priorities and of course budgets. Each step though, can go to making a positive impact on the lives and experiences of our children and their families, reducing child poverty and removing the likelihood of future generations living in the same conditions.

Everyone should play their part to make child poverty unacceptable across the city. Anyone who lives or works in Birmingham and wants to share their views can contact email: or Twitter @fairbrum

Is it child’s play: creating an anti-poverty childcare system?


Every parent wants the best start for their child and a recent study published by Joseph Rowntree Foundation (JRF), Creating an anti-poverty childcare system highlights how the current child care system doesn’t focus enough on providing high quality early learning for our children to protect them against the negative effects of poverty.

With a complex system currently looking more like a game of snakes and ladders, what you receive in one hand rapidly slides away in the other, but the losers in this game can be the children in the long term.

Kicking off with “2.3 million children in the UK are living below the Child Poverty Act 2010 relative poverty threshold, representing one-fifth of all children” the Executive Summary high lights how we need to change things.

The report calls for a childcare system which maximises on quality with well-qualified, experienced staff able to identify and respond to children’s needs; a good social mix of children; a proactive approach to supporting home learning; and strong links with early intervention services.

The system also needs to remove the barriers of affordability and access for parents on low incomes, allowing them the flexibility and opportunity to find work in good quality jobs and not just taking a lower paid job that fits with the standard childcare hours.

It is suggested that policy-makers should grasp the opportunity to translate the potential of this system into reality by responding to four key themes:

  • Providing high quality early education and effective early intervention
  • Supporting parents through accessible, flexible childcare
  • Childcare and Universal Credit
  • Childcare subsidy reform and supply-funded childcare

What ever government plans to do, it needs to move now to provide our children with the opportunities to fulfil their potential and create a better society, surely better statistics would be “2.3 million children out of poverty?”

To download the study click here: anti_pov_childcare_full_0 (1)

Do you or your organisation have a view on this study? Why not share your views with the commission?

Tweeter: @fairbrum



Difficulty speaking English increases chances of poverty

A previous study, Poverty across ethnic groups through recession and austerity was produced by Joseph Rowntree Foundation in 2015 looked at how ethnicity and poverty are linked. The research examined the impact of the recession which started in 2008 and subsequent austerity measures on different ethnic groups’ economic well-being.

The study:

  • compares economic well-being measures (household income, access to
  • goods and services for achieving a reasonable standard of living, poverty status) of different ethnic groups;
  • investigates for each ethnic group which components of income contributed to these changes;
  • considers whether changes in employment rates among men and women in these groups contributed to these changes;
  • compares persistent poverty across different ethnic groups and identifies factors associated with persistent poverty.

For full details of the study go to: Poverty across ethnic groups through recession and austerity

Do you have personal experience or work with people who are directly impacted by languages barriers that make it difficult to move out of poverty? If so, why not share them with the commission and tell us what would help to improve the situation for you or them?



Study finds quality flexible working could help with child poverty

Publication2Joseph Rowntree Foundation have recently published findings of a study investigating the number of ‘quality’ flexible job vacancies in the UK, which shows how living standards could improve if there were more of these jobs.

New part-time or flexible job vacancies are necessary to enable workless people in low-income households to enter the jobs market on a flexible basis, and for people in low-paid part-time work to progress to new jobs with better pay while retaining their flexibility.

The key findings shown from a summary four page document shows that:

  • Parents, older people and disabled people (the three groups under study) need to earn at least £10.63 an hour to meet minimum income standards. This rate establishes the pay threshold for a ‘quality’ job and equates to a full-time equivalent salary of £19,500 a year.
  • 1.9 million people could benefit from getting a quality flexible job and hold the necessary qualification levels to attain one. Of these, over 1.5 million people are currently in part-time work below the pay rate for a quality job. A further 154,000 people are workless.
  • There are 202,300 well-qualified people in the groups who are living in poverty.
  • Only 6.2 per cent of quality job vacancies are advertised with options to work flexibly. This compares poorly with the high demand for flexible work (47 per cent of the workforce want to work flexibly).
  • There are 8.1 people in poverty for each quality flexible vacancy, of whom 7.4 people are workless. For quality full-time jobs, the demand is only 0.9 workless people per vacancy.
  • An eight-fold increase in the number of flexible job vacancies would be needed, for supply versus demand to match that for quality full-time jobs.

Recommendations for the UK Government

The summary focuses on four main areas of focus, each with recommended approaches.

  1. Help the 202,300 parents, older people and disabled people who are in poverty and could benefit from a quality flexible job
  2. Improve the wider social mobility of the 1.9 million people who are not achieving their full earning potential and could benefit from a quality flexible job
  3. Improve knowledge about flexible working
  4. And Government can also demonstrate leadership as an employer in its own right.

Download Joseph Rowntree Foundation reports:

Summary copy – timewise-flexible-hiring-summary

Full copy – timewise-flexible-hiring-full (1)

Anyone who wants to share their views, ideas and stories with the commission can contact:

People are also encouraged to contact and follow the commission on Twitter using its@FairBrum handle and the hashtag #brumchildpoverty.

The commission aims to publish its report, including recommendations to tackle poverty in Birmingham, early next year.

Aspire and Succeed share their views with the commission


Matthew Reed, Chair of the Birmingham Child Poverty Commission,  met with young people from Aspire and Succeed, based in Lozells to hear their views and thoughts on how they can help the commission with ideas on how to  reduce child poverty in the city.

Around 15 young people between the ages of 17 to 18 years old took part in a focused discussion around two case studies based on, 15 year old Kam and 8 year old Ben whose lives are blighted by poverty. A number of very insightful and passionate points were raised and some of the young people shared their own experiences about the barriers that prevented them and their families accessing opportunities to improve their quality of life.

Some of the common themes and solutions identified by the group were:

  • Housing issues.Kam case study
  • Money management advice and financial support.
  • Raise the living wage.
  • Young people need more access to a range of career opportunities.
  • Provide training for family members out of work by local organisations and businesses.
  • Local communities to help and encourage family members to speak English to increase opportunities and access to services.
  • Provide positive mentoring for young people by school teachers, other family members and local groups

What needs to happen for jobs in this area?

  • Pathway for young people to gain apprenticeship. Training opportunities are not always fit for purpose. Historically there was industry, now there isn’t much. Need to raise awareness of how to go for jobs and stimulate ambition.
  • Area has an unfair negative reputation which employers look at as a reason not to employ us. Stigmatised by our postcode.
  • Better housing for families – stop overcrowding.
  • Training opportunities weren’t considered fit for purpose, as businesses in the area were industrial now they have changed to services.

What could schools do differently?

  • After school clubs are need to help with homework.
  • Providing a free school uniform, stationery.
  • Teachers need to be more encouraging and positive toward all children not just the ‘clever’ ones. “It’s not good for your confidence to be told that you won’t get anywhere or and will get bad exam results”.
  • Expelled pupils are moved to a centre at the other side of the city referred to as journey men, moving from one school to another. This prevents them from building lasting friendships and damages their self-confidence and self-esteem.
  • Some young children had their time at school disrupted as they often became translators for family members. Translating ‘adult issues’ causing emotional and stressed.

What shouldn’t be missed… when the group were asked by Matthew, what should be including in the commission recommendations? They responded by saying;

  • Different ways to  earn good money, it creates opportunity to do things, buy the things needed and pay the bills.
  • Something needs to be done to get rid of postcode prejudice and the assumptions made about coming from a ‘trouble’ area.
  • Give young people contacts to access good job opportunities.
  • The commission needs to look at social housing issues as they are impacting families and;
  • A lack of affordable accessible centres and sporting facilitates make it difficult for young people to enjoy physical activities to get healthy and time away from other pressures.
  • All children have dreams to do well in life – no matter what your background or the area you come from.

Anyone who wants to share their stories or ideas with the commission can contact:

People are also encouraged to contact and follow the commission on Twitter using its@FairBrum handle and the hashtag #brumchildpoverty.

The commission aims to publish its report, including recommendations to tackle poverty in Birmingham, early next year.


IMAG0923.1Families are being urged to join the fight against child poverty as a series of public consultation events organised by the Birmingham Child Poverty Commission picks up pace.  On the back of new Office for National Statistics figures which reveal 39.6 per cent of Birmingham’s neighbourhoods were among the most deprived 10% nationally (1), commissioners will on Tuesday visit a local primary school to talk with children about their lives and experiences.

The visit to Future First Independent School in Hockley follows a bus tour of local organisations on Friday including the Amirah Foundation, which supports homeless and vulnerable women and children, the Oasis Academy Foundry Primary School in Winson Green and St Boniface Church in Quinton, which also supports vulnerable families.

The commission, chaired by Matthew Reed, chief executive of national charity The Children’s Society, and established by Birmingham City Council, is looking at ways to tackle child poverty in Birmingham and ensure all children have access to opportunities in life. Its public consultation programme revolves around visits to family fun days and events that community-based organisations are already holding, as well as specially-arranged visits for commissioners.

Representatives from the commission spend time at the events listening and recording the views of those that are willing to share their experiences. The commission is calling on parents and children to share their experiences of how they have been affected by poverty and ideas they may have around tackling some of the root causes.

Ahead of the launch of its consultation programme, the commission published a Child Poverty Needs Assessment – based on previous ONS figures – which revealed that almost half of all Birmingham children lived in England’s poorest areas.

The Child Poverty Needs Assessment brings together statistics highlighting the scale of the challenge and some of the reasons why children grow up in poverty. It reveals that 37% of children in Birmingham live in poverty after housing costs, while poverty levels are above the national average in more than three-quarters of city council wards. In Sparkbrook and Nechells nearly half of all children live in poverty. (2)

The commission includes representatives from the public, private and voluntary sectors, including the University of Birmingham and Barnardo’s, and is focusing upon five themes: the economy/unemployment, in work poverty, education, health and transport.
It is gathering the views of representatives from all of those sectors including people who work with children, health experts, politicians, business representatives, faith groups and academics. But above all, it wants to hear from families and young people.

Matthew Reed, Chairman of the Birmingham Child Poverty Commission and Chief Executive of The Children’s Society, said:

“It is vital that we hear about experiences of poverty from the children and families affected and the community groups and organisations which work with them.

“These events help us to identify both measures which can make a difference in the short-term and changes which will tackle some of the fundamental causes of child poverty in the future.”

Anyone who wants to share their stories or ideas with the commission can contact
People are also encouraged to contact and follow the commission on Twitter using its @FairBrum handle and the hashtag #brumchildpoverty.
The commission aims to publish its report, including recommendations to tackle poverty in Birmingham, early next year.


Notes to Editors
Media opportunity. You are invited to a photo call and opportunity to speak to some of the young people involved in the research on Tuesday 13th October 2015 at 2pm-3.30pm, Future First Independent School, Hockley Port Moorings, All Saints Street, Hockley, Birmingham, B18 7RL. To confirm your attendance, contact either Natasha Bhandal, Communications Manager at Birmingham City Council on 0121 303 8727 or  or Kris Kowalewski on 0121 303 3621
(1) See
(2) Figures were calculated using data from the Index of Multiple Deprivation, census and Office for National Statistics population estimates. Of the 639 Lower Layer Super Output Areas (LSOAs) in Birmingham, 245 are in the top 10 per cent most deprived nationally. Of the 280,023 children in Birmingham, 136,848 live in these 245 Local Super Output Areas – 49 per cent. LSOAs are small geographic divisions with a population of at least 1,000 which are used to measure indices of deprivation – there is an LSOA for every postcode.
The Children’s Society is a national charity that runs local services, helping children and young people when they are at their most vulnerable, and have nowhere left to turn. We also campaign for changes to laws affecting children and young people, to stop the mistakes of the past being repeated in the future. Our supporters around the country fund our services and join our campaigns to show children and young people they are on their side.